Global Concepts on  Foreigners-owned Company Registration

Global Concepts on  Foreigners-owned Company Registration

第一節關於各國政府對外資設立的大觀念
Section 1 Global Concepts on  Foreigners-owned  Company Registration

關於各國政府對外資設立的大觀念 kc(Knowledge code)=LEG-WW-00
Broad concept of FDI by Governments kc(Knowledge code)=LEG-WW-00

那是英美法系的國家?還是大陸法系的國家?
該國是已開發國家?開發中國家?低度開發國家?
該國公司登記程序中是否有Notary公證人制度?
該國是否有反洗錢法及恐怖份子防治法?
該國國土大小以及各國政府的架構,是中央制?還是邦聯制?
該國政府擔心外資公司哪些點?

Is that a Anglo-American legal system country? Or a civil law system country?
Is the country developed? Developing countries? Low-development countries?
Is there a Notary system in the company registration process in the country?
Does the country have an anti-money-laundering law and a terrorist prevention law?
Is the size of the country and the structure of national Governments central? Or the Confederacy?
What are the government’s concerns about foreign companies?

當碰到設立外資子公司時,要了解一個正在拓展的新國家、新城市、新據點時,有幾個點必須具備的認識。
When it comes to setting up a foreign subsidiary, there are a few necessary understandings when expanding your business to a new country, a new city, a new operation base.

第一個要知道的是:
那是英美法系的國家?還是大陸法系的國家?
這2個不同法系的國家,對於公司組織架構、註冊地址、資本結構等會有許多不同的規定。
The first thing to know is:
Is that an Anglo-American legal system country? Or a civil law system country?
In two different legal systems, there are many different requirements  and regulations for the organizational structure of the company, its registered address, its capital structure, etc.

第二個要知道的是:
該國是已開發國家?開發中國家?低度開發國家?
這3個不同經濟開發程度的國家,會在外資允許行業、外資限制行業、外資禁止行業、特許行業、外資比例、最低資本金…等有很大的影響。
例如低度開發國家,通常不允許外資經營零售業及服務業。

The second thing to know is:
is the country already developed?  Or developing countries? Or Low-development countries?
These three kinds of countries with different levels of economic development will big influences in  (1) industries with limited foreign investment, (2)industries with restricted foreign investment, (3)industries with prohibited foreign investment, (4)special-permitted-licensed industries, (4) Shareholders capital ratio of foreign investment, (5)minimum capital.
For example, Low-development countries usually do not allow foreign investment to get involved in industries of both retailing and services.

第三個要知道的是:
該國公司登記程序中是否有Notary公證人制度?
亦即當地的公司章程是否需要Notary公證再轉到法院或其他專屬公司登記機構。
荷蘭,瑞士,德國,義大利,西班牙,波蘭,羅馬尼亞,西班牙,義大利,日本,印尼都有Notary制度。
通常這些國家的律師事務所所都有下屬的註冊會計師事務所,一起執業。

The third thing to know is :
whether there is a Notary system in the company registration process in the country.
That is, the articles of incorporation of new-setup foreign-owned company require Notary’s Notarization and to be referred to the local court or other exclusive company registration authority.
The Dutch, Swiss, German, Italy, Spain, Poland, Romania, Spain, Italy, Japan and Indonesia all have Notary system.
Usually, law firms in these countries have affiliated CPAs who practice together with them.

第四個要知道的是:
該國是否有反洗錢法及資助恐怖份子防治法?
各國對外資公司設立程序逐漸變為簡單,但如有上述兩法規,律師、會計師,銀行及其他專業人士,皆被要求嚴格把關執行KYC(Know Your Client)程序。
使得公司設立及銀行開戶,都必須經過較嚴謹的篩選,投資者必須是殷實可靠有實力的公司。

The fourth point to know is:
does the country have an anti-money-laundering law and an anti-terrorist-financing law?
Although the procedure for the establishment of foreign-funded companies has gradually become more and more simpler in various countries, but with the above-mentioned two regulations, Lawyers, accountants, banks and other professionals are required to strictly enforce KYC (Know Your Client) procedures. When provide the company registration services and bank account opening services, all services providers must pass a more rigorous screening to ensure the investor be a solid and decent company.

第五個要了解的是:
該國國土大小以及各國政府的架構,是中央制?還是邦聯制?
這涉及到中央或地方-公司所得稅稅證證號、中央或地方-個人所得稅稅證證號、中央或地方-營業稅證證號、中央或地方-社會福利證證號、中央或地方-退休金證證號等的申請。

The fifth question to understand is:
is the area size of the country? And the structure of governments, is central or confederate?
This involves in about  various certificate application like (1)central or local – corporate income tax certificate number,(2) central or local – personal income tax certificate number, (3)central or local – business tax certificate number, (4)central or local – social welfare certificate number, Central or  (5)local – application for pension certificate number, etc.

第六個要知道的是:
該國政府擔心外資公司哪些點?
各國政府都歡迎外資,但共同的不希望外資來該國開立銀行帳戶洗錢、賣假發票、賺錢不繳稅、經營非經該國批准的營業項目等。
因而會藉著在地股東、在地董事來担任聯絡人、限制一址一公司、投資方文件認證等措施,主要在保障發生任何事情,可以找到相關利害關係人出面處理, 嚇阻不法皮包公司及其不法行為存在。

The sixth thing to know is:
what are the government’s concerns about foreign companies?
Every country’s governments surely welcome foreign investment, but the common expectation are that does not want foreign capital to open bank account for money laundering, selling counterfeit invoices, making money without paying taxes, operating business projects not approved by the country, etc.
This will result in adopting various measures such as (1) required local shareholders, (2)required local directors acting as liaisons, (3)restricting one company being setup in one address ,(4) official authentication of investor documents。Mainly assure that when anything incurred, government can find the relevant stakeholders to deal with, and try to deter the illegal shell companies and the existence of illegal acts.

以下各節,詳述
The following sections will describe them in more details.

Section 2: 在該國設立:子公司,公司,分公司,代表處
Section 2: Establishing subsidiaries, companies, branch offices or representative offices in the country.

LEG-WW-10 20190715
在該國設立:子公司,公司,分公司,代表處
在該國允許設立子公司,公司,分公司,代表處嗎? 權利義務與稅負規定有何不同?
在該國有不同種類的公司嗎?有何不同權利義務與稅負規定?
設立分公司或子公司的考量點為何?在該國公司,分支機構有何不同稅負規定?
該國歡迎透過境外免稅天堂控股公司來投資嗎?
該國有聯邦法律個體(Legal Entity)與各州租稅個體(Tax Entity)併存機制?
尚未投資設立前如何支付在被投資國人員薪資費用?投資國有扣繳問題嗎?有被視為常設機構風險嗎?

LEG-WW-10 20190715
Establishing subsidiaries, companies, branch offices or representative offices in the country.
*Are subsidiaries, companies, branches, representative offices allowed in the country? What are their difference among rights and obligations and tax provisions?
*Are there different types of companies in the country? What are the different rights, obligations and tax provisions?
*What are the considerations in establishing a branch or subsidiary? What are the different tax provisions for branch companies in this country?
*Does the country welcome investment through offshore tax-exempt paradise holding companies?
*Is there a Legal Entity in the country and a Tax Entity in the states?
*How do you pay for the salaries of people in the investee country before the investment is made? Is the State Withholding of Investment? Is it considered a permanent establishment risk?

LEG-WW-10:設立分公司或子公司的考量點為何?
LEG-WW-10: What are the considerations in establishing a branch or subsidiary?

至於是否設立分公司或子公司,根據OECD版(OECD, 2015/10/30)分公司租稅協定標準版本,跨國公司的海外機構如為分公司(Branch)型態,被視為常設機構,當兩個經濟體訂立的租稅互惠協定,常設機構只能課企業所得稅,利潤分回給國外股東時就不能再課股利分配稅。
相對地,假如跨國企業設立的是子公司型態,不但要課徵企業所得稅,且利潤分配給國外股東,還要再課徵股利分配稅。
所以許多國家對於子公司的看法相當一致;但對於分公司的措施並相當不一致。例如中國不准外資設立「分公司」,泰國的分公司只允許開立服務型發票,新加坡完全廢除股利分配稅(即子公司分配股利給國外股東,也不用課稅),台灣分公司不用課徵股利分配稅(但子公司要課股利分配稅)。
所以除了管理及行業法規考量外,尚需考量該國關於分公司或子公司之間稅務考量,來決定公司型態。

As to whether to establish a branch or subsidiary, according to the OECD version ( 2015/10/30) Standard Version of Branch Tax Agreement, where an overseas Entity of a MNC is a Branch, is considered a permanent establishment.
When two economies enter into reciprocal agreements on taxes and taxes, the permanent establishment is only liable to enterprise income tax, and the profits are divided back to foreign shareholders, no dividend distribution tax can be levied.
In contrast, if the multinational enterprise is established as a subsidiary, not only should the enterprise income tax be levied, but the profit should be distributed to the foreign shareholders, but also the dividend distribution tax should be levied again.
As a result, many countries have a fairly consistent view of subsidiaries; But measures for treating branch offices are rather inconsistent. For example, China does not allow foreign capital to set up “branch offices”, while Thailand’s branches only allow the issuance of service invoices, Singapore abolishes dividend distribution tax (i.e., the distribution of dividends by subsidiaries to foreign shareholders and is not taxable), and Taiwan branch does not levy dividend distribution tax (but its subsidiaries are subject to dividend distribution tax).
So, in addition to regulatory and industry regulatory considerations, the country’s tax considerations between subsidiaries or subsidiaries need to be considered to determine the company’s shape.

而在菲律賓外資設立40%以上子公司與100%分公司都需要20萬美元,但是分公司只需有1名在地菲律賓人擔任法定代表,而子公司5名董事中的3位董事需要是菲律賓籍,因此許多外資公司在菲律賓設立分公司。

More than 40 per cent of foreign subsidiaries and 100 per cent of subsidiaries in the Philippines will cost $200,000, However, only one local Filipino is required to be the legal representative of the branch, while three of the five directors of the subsidiary are required to be of Filipino nationality, so many foreign companies have established branches in the Philippines.

分公司的營業項目與營業範圍常被限縮,各國看待分公司是不同的;看待子公司大致相同。

Branch’s business items and business scope are often restricted, different countries look at branch company is different; Look at the subsidiaries in much the same way.

LEG-WW-10:法律個體(Legal Entity)與租稅個體(Tax Entity)
LEG-WW-10: Legal Entity and Tax Entity

常會被問在該國外資設立分公司,代表處等租稅個體(常設機構)的規定為何?租稅規定為何?

What are the requirements for setting up branch offices, representative offices, etc., in a country with foreign investment (permanent establishment)? What are the tax requirements?

法律主體是指直接擔負法律責任的單位,外資在海外子公司,該子公司是獨立的法律個體。
但是有些單位只是租稅個體,而沒有”法律個體”地位,例如跨國企業在海外的分支機構(Branch)、代表處(Representative office)或常設機構(Permanent Establishment)(陳清秀,2016) and (吳德豐、謝德美,2014) 。

The subject of law refers to the unit directly responsible for legal liability, foreign capital in the overseas subsidiary companies, the subsidiary is an independent legal entity.
But some units are tax-paying individuals and have no status as “legal individuals” Examples are Branch, Representative offices or Permanent Establishment of multinational enterprises abroad (Chen Qingxiu) 2016) and (U Tak Fung, Xie Demei, 2014).

關於在同一國家在某城市設了一家公司,要跨洲、跨省的經營,也可再設一家子公司擁有法律個體及租稅個體的地位,也有僅僅到別州去設立一個租稅個體。
最典型的是聯邦制的美國,可以在加州設立一家公司,擁有法律個體地位及聯邦租稅個體證號,及加州社會保險證號。
加州的這家公司跑到邁阿密州去作生意,就再去向邁阿密州政府申請邁阿密州租稅個體證號及邁阿密州社會保險證號,在邁阿密州僅是一個租稅個體。
爾後,在加州報加州稅,在邁阿密報邁阿密稅,而聯邦稅則由加州有法律個體的公司申報,將加州與邁阿密加起來。

In relation to the establishment of a company in a city in the same country, it is to operate across continents and provinces, A subsidiary may also have the status of a legal individual and a tax individual, or may only go to another state to set up a tax individual.
The most typical is the federal system of the United States, which can set up a company in California with a legal status and a federal tax personal identification number, and a California Social Security Certificate number.
This company in California went to Miami to do business, go to the Miami State Government to apply to the Miami State Tax Personal Identification Number and the Miami State Social Security Certificate Number.
In Miami State it is a tax individual. Then, in California, you file a California tax, you file a Miami tax in Miami, and the federal tax is declared by a Californian corporation with its own law, adding California to Miami.

LEG-WW-10:透過境外免稅天堂控股公司投資至海外子公司
LEG-WW-10: Overseas Subsidiaries Invested through Offshore Duty-Free Paradise Holdings

所謂免稅天堂控股公司,包括BVI,SAMOA,PANAMA,Camay Island,Cyprus,Seychelles,Amsterdam等公司,在過去許多公司透過先轉投資到境外公司再轉投資到海外子公司,並將產生的利潤留在境外公司。這樣的實務必須搭配銀行能夠配合開戶,而且境外公司的最終受益人必須能夠不被揭露。
但自從Panama事件後,一方面最終受益人已經被要求公開,而且各國的銀行都必須互換開戶者的存款金額及來往交易資料,使得資產及所得隱匿的空間大為縮小。

BVI, SAMOA, PANAMA, Camay Island, etc., Tax-Free Paradise Holding Company, including BVI, SAMOA, PANAMA. Companies such as Cyprus, Seychelles and Amsterdam have in the past reinvested in offshore companies and then overseas subsidiaries, and kept the profits they generated in foreign companies. Such practices must be matched with the bank’s ability to open accounts, and the ultimate beneficiaries of foreign companies must be able to remain undisclosed. But since the Panama incident, on the one hand, the ultimate beneficiary has been asked to make public, and banks in all countries have to swap the amount of deposit and the transaction information of the account holder, so the space for assets and proceeds to be hidden is greatly reduced.

加上國際間,反洗錢法及資助恐怖份子防制法,使得銀行、律師、會計師及各種仲介機構,被強制有義務協助主動申報有異狀的客戶來往交易,否則會被課民事及刑事賠償。
因此,可以說這樣的實務操作,已經不實際了。

With international, anti-money-laundering and terrorist financing laws, banks, lawyers, accountants and other intermediaries, being obliged to assist in the voluntary declaration of transactions with a different client. Failure to do so will result in civil and criminal damages.
Therefore, it can be said that such practical operation is no longer practical.

公司組織架構規劃
Corporate Structure Planning

LEG-WW-30
公司組織架構規劃
ü   這個國家是英美普通法系,還是大陸法體系?
ü   該國公司組織中的職位,如董事、監察人、公司秘書等之規定如何?
ü   該國有公司秘書的規定?此項規定之目的為何?
ü   該國公司發起人(Incorporator)持股多久可以賣?此項規定之目的為何?
ü   該國公司有在地股東 (Resident Shareholder)的規定嗎?此項規定之目的為何?
ü   該國有安排人頭股東(Nominee)實務嗎?風險為何?
ü   該國有在地董事(Resident Director)的規定?此項規定之目的為何?
ü   管理考量–在地董事的安排?風險為何?
ü   管理考量-關於誰最合適擔任海外子公司的法人代表探討?

LEG-WW-30
Corporate Structure Planning
*Is this country a common law system or a civil law system?
*What are the requirements for positions in the organization of the company in the country, such as directors, supervisors, company secretaries, etc.?
*Is there a company secretary requirement in the country? What is the purpose of this provision?
*How long can a country’s promoter of a company sell its shares? What is the purpose of this provision?
*Are there any local Shareholder (Resident Shareholder) in the country? What is the purpose of this provision?
*Does the country have Nominee in place? What are the risks?
*Is there a Resident Director in the country? What is the purpose of this provision?
*Management considerations – arrangements for local directors? What are the risks?
*Management considerations – discussion of who is best suited to act as the legal representative of an overseas subsidiary?

LEG-WW-30:這個國家是英美普通法系,還是大陸法體系?
LEG-WW-30: Is this country a common law system or a civil law system?

跨國企業到海外設立子公司時,首先必須確認被投資國的法律是英、美法體系,還是大陸法(德國)體系。
這兩個法律體系有些不同的地方。
英、美法在法律之上還有一個公平正義原則,意即公平正義原則比法律還要優先考慮。
所以法官常要組成一個陪審團來判決,而且有很多的判例要參考,逐漸修法時,會將判例變成正式法律。
大陸法律體系中法律則是最重要的判決標準,它的憲法叫做剛性憲法,即使法律有不符合公平正義,不合理之處,大家也要遵守,再不合理也要等到法律正式立法改變後才能改變,大陸法系的司法訴訟成本,使用法律維持社會秩序的成本比較低。

When setting up subsidiaries abroad, the multinational enterprise must first confirm whether the laws of the investee country are English, American or Continental Law (Germany) systems.
There are some differences between the two legal systems.
There is also a principle of fairness and justice, that is, the principle of fairness and justice takes precedence over the law, in the United Kingdom and the United States over the law.
So judges often form a jury to adjudicate, and there is a lot of precedent to refer to, and the progressive revision of the law will turn the precedent into formal law. In the continental legal system, the law is the most important standard of judgment.
Its constitution is called a rigid constitution, even if the law is not in accordance with fairness and justice, It is unreasonable for us to abide by it, and it will be necessary for us to wait until the formal legislative changes are made before we can change it. The costs of judicial proceedings and the costs of using the law to maintain social order are relatively low in the continental legal system.

LEG-WW-30:公司組織中的職位,如董事、監察人、公司秘書等的規定如何?
LEG-WW-30: What are the requirements for a position in a company’s organization, such as a director, supervisor, company secretary, etc?

這兩個法律體系也影響到其公司法上的組織架構。中國、日本、台灣等皆是大陸法體系,有董事長、董事、監察人、股東的架構,而從大陸法體系,來看英、美法系國家,其最重要的幾個特徵如下:
(1).”公司秘書”(Company Secretary)必須被指派負責董事會及公司法規定的法律遵循事務。
(2)CEO必須是董事會的成員,較小公司有時稱為Managing Director
(3)Chairman是虛位,不能和外界訂約
(4)常有破產宣告情事,由於董事對債權人負有事前宣告免除責任規定,例如英國公司法規定,當公司於6個月後如果資金週轉不來,有可能無法還債,必須向債權人要求託管或宣告破產,否則董事會有責任,甚至有些情況債權人可以追到董事的私人財產來償還。
(5)沒有監察人,所有非執行董事(沒有在公司任職的董事)都是監察人,都有權來查公司的一切活動及帳務及法規遵循狀況 (陳中成會計師,2014/08/03)

These two legal systems also affect the organizational structure of their corporate laws. China, Japan and Taiwan are continental legal systems, There is a structure of chairman, director, supervisor and shareholder. From the continental legal system, the most important features of the Anglo-American legal system are as follows:
(1)Company Secretary must be assigned to the Board of Directors and to the Company Secretary in respect of compliance with the Law.
(2) The CEO must be a member of the board, and smaller companies are sometimes referred to as Managing Director
(3) Chairman is vacant and cannot contract with outside party
(4) There is often a declaration of bankruptcy, because the directors are under a prior declaration of exemption from liability with respect to creditors, as in the case of the Companies Act of the United Kingdom, if the company fails to make a cash flow after six months, It may not be possible to repay the debt and it must be entrusted to creditors or declared bankrupt, otherwise the board has a duty, and in some cases even creditors can pursue the directors’ private property to pay it back.
(5) Without a supervisor, all non-executive directors (directors who are not in the company) are supervisors, They have the right to inspect all company activities and the compliance status of accounting and compliance with laws and regulations (Chen Chung-cheng CPA, 2014/08/03).

LEG-WW-30:發起人持股多久可以賣出?
LEG-WW-30: How long can a promoter’s shareholding be sold?

跨國公司設立海外子公司時,設立初期尚有發起人( Incorporator )這個角色。
發起人於公司成立後才變成股東(Shareholders)身分。
發起人股份通常於設立後,取得股東身份後,就可轉讓。
所以有些國家,例如馬來西亞公司的設立需要兩位以上的發起人,外資想要100%擁有,就要分2階段,除了自己擁有99%以上股權,發起人給予非常小股權,於公司設立完成後,該發起人股權再作轉讓給外資,以達到100%。
但有些國家則規定發起人所擁有的股份必須一定期間後才能轉讓,例如台灣的規定為一年後才能轉讓發起人股份。

When MNCs set up overseas subsidiaries, there was an initial role for the promoters.
The promoter becomes a Shareholders only after the company is established.
The shares of the promoters are usually transferable after they have been established and acquired the status of shareholders. So some countries, such as Malaysian companies, need more than two sponsors to set up their own companies.
If foreign capital wants 100% ownership, it has to be divided into two stages, In addition to owning more than 99 per cent of the shares, the promoters give very small stakes, and upon the completion of the establishment of the company, the sponsors’ equity is transferred to foreign capital to reach 100 per cent.
However, some countries require that the shares owned by the promoters must be transferred after a certain period of time, as in the case of Taiwan, one year before the shares of the promoters can be transferred.

LEG-WW-30:在地股東的規定?
LEG-WW-30: Requirements for local shareholders?

有些國家尚且可以用外資股權信託持股的方式給在地股東,並由該股東擔任代表方式。
例如在印度外資母公司在設立時可以99%由自己代表,1%由印度在地人代表,其2個股東去投資印度外資子公司以這樣來維持100%外資的運作。

In some countries, foreign shareholding in a foreign equity trust can be given to the local shareholder and represented by that shareholder.
In India, for example, the foreign parent company can be represented by itself 99 per cent when it is established and 1 per cent by Indians in the region, Two of its shareholders invest in foreign subsidiaries in India in such a way as to maintain 100 per cent of their foreign capital operations.

LEG-WW-30:安排人頭股東風險為何?
LEG-WW-30: What are the risks involved in arranging head shareholders?

由於許多國家都會限制本國籍才能經營的行業,或本國籍必須佔有一定比例的行業,因此就有許多人頭股東的安排。
人頭股東的安排常搭配借款合約,以及沒有押日期,以及沒有押轉讓對象的股權移轉書,以及在章程上訂立較低股利分配的安排。
這些存在極為複雜並且具有風險的投資架構,有時候也造成需賄賂官員才能取得執照的風險。
例如菲律賓負責公司登記的官員可能會質疑菲籍股東的資金來源。
同時當公司因經營需要,必須在相關政府單位辦理變更手續時,人頭股東常常不願意配合簽字,而必須付出額外的代價。
因此人頭股東的安排絕對要能避免就要避免,要採取合法的方式建立外資子公司的投資架構較為妥當。

Since many countries restrict the industries in which they are capable of operating, or have to have a certain percentage of their nationality, there are many head-shareholder arrangements.
The head-holder arrangement often goes hand in hand with the loan contract and the absence of a date for the loan, and the transfer of shares without the transferor, as well as the arrangement of a lower dividend distribution in the prospectus.
These are extremely complex and risky investment structures that sometimes create the risk of bribery of officials in order to obtain a license.
For example, the Philippine company registration officer may question the funding of Filipino shareholders.
At the same time, when the company has to go through the change formalities in the relevant government units because of its operational needs, the head-holder shareholders are often unwilling to cooperate with the signature and have to pay an extra price.
Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to avoid the arrangement of the Head Shareholder, and it is more appropriate to establish the investment structure of the foreign subsidiary in a legal way.

泰國有許多51%股權是借泰國籍居民當股東而設立的,而這樣的公司通常需控制讓公司不賺錢,不造成在地股東因分配股利,而需繳交所得稅。
而控制泰國公司不賺錢的方式,只適合至少有一頭在外的公司,即材料供應商在海外,或者客戶在海外。
這些海外的公司皆是由外資控制,其結果為泰國公司高買低賣。但是泰國稅捐處,也會用移轉計價法課徵所得稅的風險。

A number of 51 per cent of Thailand’s equity is held by Thai residents as shareholders, and such companies usually need to control the company not to make money, not to cause the local shareholders to pay income tax because of the dividend distribution.
And the way to control Thai companies that do not make money is only for companies with at least one outside, i.e., material suppliers abroad, or customers abroad.
These overseas companies are all controlled by foreign capital, and as a result, Thai companies buy high and sell low. But Thailand’s tax office will also use the transfer pricing method to levy income tax risk.

LEG-WW-30:在地董事的規定?
LEG-WW-30: Requirements for local directors?

有些在地董事規定一定要有股東身份才能擔任,例如菲律賓的3位在地董事,即使每位董事只有很小的一美元,也是允許的。
但是由於這是在地董事的股權,不能強迫他們賣出,除非他們同意,這會影響到未來的改變,當有些文件需要在地董事或所有股東簽名時,就會造成問題。

Some local directors are required to have a shareholder status, such as the three on the ground in the Philippines, even if each director has a small dollar, it is permissible.
But since this is a local director’s share, they cannot be forced to sell, unless they agree, this will affect future changes, which can cause problems when some documents need to be signed by local directors or all shareholders.

LEG-WW-30:在地董事的安排?
LEG-WW-30: Arrangements for Local Directors?

基於這樣的概念,許多英美法系的國家,即使是允許外國100%股權投資的子公司,也必須安排在地董事(Resident Director),這包括新加坡、菲律賓、印度、馬來西亞等皆需要。
需要在地董事這件事常困擾著跨國公司海外子公司的設立。委派當地自己子公司的員工或子公司經理人擔任董事,可能有利益衝突,可能顛倒了授權程序,當子公司有些未符合法律遵循的情事發生時,可能更難處理,因此通常能避免就會避免。
但是委派外部具有在地國籍人士擔任在地董事時,該在地董事也怕外資子公司有漏稅,債權被捲入,及其他違反法規遵循被捲入,因此很難找。除非在地董事也很了解外資子公司的營運狀況,所以通常會委派”公司秘書”,或外包會計師事務所所指派的人士,來擔在地董事。

Based on this concept, many common law countries, even if they are subsidiaries that allow 100 per cent of foreign equity investment, Local Director (Resident Director), which includes Singapore, the Philippines, India, Malaysia, etc., must also be placed.
The need for local directors has often plagued the establishment of foreign subsidiaries of multinational companies. Appoint employees of local subsidiaries or managers of subsidiaries as directors, there may be conflicts of interest, may reverse the authorization process, may be more difficult to deal with when a subsidiary is not in compliance with the law, and thus can usually be prevented from doing so.
However, when a person with local nationality is appointed to the local directorship, Local directors also fear tax evasion by foreign affiliates, claims involvement and other regulatory infringements, making it difficult to find. Unless the local directors are well aware of the operations of the foreign subsidiary, they will usually appoint “company secretary” or the person designated by the accounting firm to act as a local director.

LEG-WW-30:公司秘書(Company Secretory)的規定?
LEG-WW-30: Company Secretory Regulation?

還有這些需要在地董事的國家,通常都有公司秘書(Company Secretory)這個職位,把預先簽好沒有日期的股權轉讓合約書,放在公司秘書的檔案裡,當需要變更時押上日期就可以去辦理在地股東股權變更及在地董事變更。
And in countries where local directors are required, there is usually a position for Company Secretory to sign an undated share transfer agreement in which there is no pre-existing contract, In the company secretary’s file, when need change, the date can be deferred to deal with the change of local shareholder’s shareholding and local director’s change.

LEG-WW-30:關於誰最合適擔任海外子公司的法人代表?
LEG-WW-30: On who is best qualified to act as the legal representative of an overseas subsidiary?

關於誰最合適擔任海外子公司的法人代表?有三種選擇:母公司的高階經營團隊成員,母公司派出去子公司經理人,在當地聘用的子公司的經理人,其中最理想的、最常見的,是母公司高階經營團隊成員。

On who would be best placed to act as the legal representative of an overseas subsidiary? There are three options: a senior management team member of the parent company, the parent company sends its subsidiary managers, and the managers of the locally employed subsidiaries, the most ideal and common of which are the members of the top management team of the parent company.

這是因為海外子公司如要建立起「主計」體系,維護良好的內控時,經理人擔任負責人就沒法做到。經理人會變動,也是海外子公司的法人代表相關的證件因而變動,也是相當麻煩的。
例如銀行開戶,通常由法人代表和銀行簽約並簽署文件,如經理人職務變動或離職,銀行端的法人代表就必須變動。

This is because managers will not be able to maintain good internal controls if the overseas subsidiaries establish a “controller” system. It is also quite troublesome for managers to change, and thus to change the credentials of corporate representatives of foreign affiliates.
For example, a bank account, usually signed and signed by a legal representative and a bank, must be changed by the legal representative at the bank if the manager changes his position or leaves office.

但是母公司的高階經營團隊成員,必須是能夠常到海外子公司的人員。有許多跨國公司派了母公司的高階人員到子公司擔任法人代表,結果因為太忙,常常碰到沒辦法到海外子公司開立地方銀行戶的困難。當然這時候就需要非審計服務業者提供「代收代付」服務。代收代付,就是當要支付供應商或是員工款項時,由跨國企業在當地開立的銀行「大帳戶」,轉到非審計服務業者的銀行帳戶,再由非審計服務業者付給員工及供應商。

But the senior members of the parent company’s management team must be people who are able to frequent their subsidiaries overseas. Many TNCs have sent senior members of the parent company to act as corporate representatives, and as a result, they often encounter difficulties in opening local bank accounts in their subsidiaries abroad because they are too busy to do so. Of course, non-audit service providers are required to provide “collection and payment” services at this time. Collection and payment is the large bank account opened locally by a multinational corporation when payment is made to the supplier or employee. Bank accounts are transferred to non-audit service providers and paid by non-audit service providers to employees and suppliers.

外資允許行業、限制行業、禁止行業、特許行業
Foreign capital allows industries, restricted industries, prohibited industries, licensed industries

SPE-WW-05
正面表列或負面表列方式
ü  在該國採正面表列方式(列出來才允許外資投資或限制投資)?外資比例規定?其資本額規定?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  在該國採負面表列方式(列出來不可,未列允許投資或限制投資)?外資比例規定?其資本額規定?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  在該國:對某些投資國採正面表列方式? 同時也對某些投資國採負面表列方式?此項規定之目的為何?

SPE-WW-05
Positive or negative table columns
*Positive tabulation in the country (listing of FDI or restriction of investment)? What is the ratio of foreign investment? What is its capital requirement? What is the purpose of this provision?
*Negative tabulation in the country (which cannot be listed and does not allow or restrict investment)? What is the ratio of foreign investment? What is its capital requirement? What is the purpose of this provision?
*In that country: positive tabulation for certain investor countries? Is there a negative tabulation for some home countries? What is the purpose of this provision?

SPE-WW-10
外資限制投資行業(外資限制行業)
ü  在該國採正面表列方式(列出來限制投資)?外資比例規定?其資本額規定?此項規定之目的為何?
ü   在該國採負面表列方式(列出來不可,未列允許限制投資)?外資比例規定?其資本額規定?此項規定之目的為何?

SPE-WW-10
Foreign Investment Restriction Industries (Foreign Investment Restriction Industries)
*Positive tabulation in the country (listing to restrict investment)? What is the ratio of foreign investment? What is its capital requirement? What is the purpose of this provision?
*Negative tabulation in the country (listing not allowed, no restrictions on investment)? What is the ratio of foreign investment? What is its capital requirement? What is the purpose of this provision?

SPE-WW-20
外資允許投資行業(外資允許行業)
ü  在該國外資如何取得100%或接近100%控股行業是什?其資本額規定?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  在該國採正面表列方式(列出來才允許外資投資)?其資本額規定?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  在該國採負面表列方式(列出來不可,未列才允許外資投資)?其資本額規定?此項規定之目的為何?

SPE-WW-20
Foreign Investment Permitted Industries (FDI Permitted Industries)
*How does foreign investment in the country achieve 100 per cent or close to 100 per cent of the holding industry? What is its capital requirement? What is the purpose of this provision?
*Positive tabulation in the country (listing only foreign investment allowed)? What is its capital requirement? What is the purpose of this provision?
*What is the negative tabulation in the country (the list cannot be listed, only foreign investment is allowed)? What is its capital requirement? What is the purpose of this provision?

SPE-WW-25
外資不允許投資行業(外資禁止行業)
ü  在該國對於外資的不允許投資行業是什?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  在該國採正面表列方式(未列出來不允許外資投資)?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  在該國採負面表列方式(列出來不允許外資投資)?此項規定之目的為何?

SPE-WW-25
Foreign investment shall not be allowed in the investment industry (industry prohibited by foreign investment)
*What is the non-permitted investment industry in the country for foreign investment? What is the purpose of this provision?
*Positive tabulation in the country (no FDI is allowed)? What is the purpose of this provision?
*Negative tabulation in the country (which does not allow foreign investment)? What is the purpose of this provision?

SPE-WW-30
該國特許行業
ü   該國特許行業與外商限制行業有什不同?
ü   該國特許行業主管機關需先核准,再由外資主管機關核准嗎?機制如何?

SPE-WW-30
Licensed industry in the country
*What is the difference between the country’s licensed industry and foreign-restricted industries?
*Does the country’s authorized industry authority need to approve before foreign investment authorities can approve it? What about the mechanism?

SPE-WW-40
該國特許行業批准證書申辦;
ü   該國醫療器材銷售許可證-如何申請?
ü   該國食品流通許可證-如何申請?
ü   該國藥證-如何申請?
ü   該國海空貨物承攬業-如何申請?

SPE-WW-40
The License Industry Approval Certificate of the country;
*License for the sale of medical equipment in the country – how to apply?
*Permit for food distribution in the country – how to apply?
*National Drug Certificate – How to Apply?
*Air and Sea Cargo Contracting in the country – How to Apply?

SPE-WW-50
避開該國特許行業與外商限制行業
ü   該國特許行業與外商限制行業如何避開?
ü   該國允許先設立100%子公司, 再轉投資嗎?
ü  管理考量–可以與有特許證公司以不合資但合作方式–協作雙贏嗎? 此項考量之目的為何?

SPE-WW-50
Shunning Concessionary Industries and Foreign-Restricted Industries in the Country
*How can the country’s licensed and foreign-restricted industries be avoided?
*Does the country allow the establishment of 100 per cent subsidiaries before reinvestment?
*Regulatory considerations – can a non-joint but cooperative approach be made with a licensed company – to collaborate on a win-win basis? What is the purpose of this consideration?

SPE-WW-05:該國對外商投資的行業與產品,是採用正面表列還是負面表列?
SPE-WW-05: Is the country’s industry and products with foreign investment positively listed or negatively listed?

正面表列行業就是這些列出來的行業,外資可以被允許投資及限制條件投資,如最低資本額以及內外資比例的限制,以及必備的資質。其餘未在正面表列清單的行業,外資禁止投資。但每個國家都會保留一個專案審查的權宜措施。

Positive listed industries are those in which foreign investment can be permitted and restricted, such as minimum capital and internal and external capital ratios, as well as the requisite qualifications. For the remaining industries not included in the positive list, foreign investment is prohibited. Each country, however, retains a stopgap measure for ad hoc review.

負面表列行業就是這些列出來的行業,禁止外資投資的產業,以及有限制條件讓外資投資的產業。限制投資包括最低資本額,內外資比例及其他必備的資質等。其餘未列在負面表列行業,均可以依該國外資公司法投資。

The negative listed industries are the listed industries, the industries where foreign investment is prohibited, and the industries with restricted conditions for foreign investment. Restrictions on investment include minimum capital, ratio of internal and external capital and other necessary qualifications, etc. The rest are not listed in the negative list and can be invested under the foreign company law of the country.

SPE-WW-05:從正面表列行業與產品清單,看外資允許類、限制類、禁止類有哪些?
SPE-WW-05: Looking at the list of industries and products on the positive list, what kinds of foreign investment permitted, restricted and prohibited?

表4.1正面表列行業與產品清單與外資允許類、限制類、禁止類關係
Table4.1
Positive List Industry and Product List and Foreign Capital Permitted Class, Restricted Class and Prohibited Class Relationship

允許類 限制類 禁止類
正面

表列

 

清單列出來允許外資投資 清單列出來限制外資投資有條件投資 清單未列出來禁止外資投資

 

 

 

 

 

資料來源: 本研究

Permitted Classes Restricted Classes Prohibited Classes
A positive list of investments

 

when industries being listed, allowed foreigners investing. when industries being listed, allowed foreigners investing in some conditions The industries without being listed, will not be allowed foreigners investing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: This study

允許類:正面表列清單列出來的產業及其產品,允許外資投資。
限制類:正面表列清單列出來的產業及其產品,限制外資投資及有條件投資。
Permitted category: Industry and its products listed on the positive list, and foreign investment allowed.
Restricted class: Industry and its products listed on the positive list, restricting foreign investment and conditional investment.

禁止類:正面表列清單未列出來的產業及其產品,禁止外資投資。
Prohibited Category: Industries and products not listed in the positive list are prohibited from foreign investment.

SPE-WW-05:從負面表列行業與產品清單,看外資允許類、限制類、禁止類?
SPE-WW-05: Looking at the List of Industries and Products in the Negative List, FDI Permitted, Restricted and Prohibited Categories?

表4.2 負面表列行業與產品清單與外資允許類、限制類、禁止類關係
Table4.2 Negative List Industry and Product List and Foreign Capital Permitted Class, Restricted Class and Prohibited Class Relationship

允許類 限制類 禁止類
負面

表列

 

清單未列出來允許外資投資 清單列出來

限制外資投資有條件投資

清單列出來禁止外資投資

 

 

 

 

 

資料來源: 本研究

Permitted Category Restricted Category Prohibited category
The Negative List

 

if  the industries are Not Listed, Allowing Foreign Investment The industries are  Listed, allowing foreign Investment in some conditional terms. The industries being Listed, which are not allowed foreign investment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: This study

允許類:負面表列清單未列出來的產業及其產品,允許外資投資。
限制類:負面表列清單列出來的產業及其產品,限制外資投資有條件投資。

Permitted Category: Industries and their products not listed in the Negative Listed List are allowed foreign investment.
Restricted category: Industries listed in the negative list and their products, restricting foreign investment in conditional investment.

禁止類:負面表列清單列出來的產業及其產品,禁止外資投資。
Prohibited Category: Industries and their products listed on the negative list are prohibited from foreign investment.

SPE-WW-10:限制外資投資的方式有哪些?
SPE-WW-10: What are the ways to restrict foreign investment?

限制外資投資有許多的方式, 例如股權比例限制,股東身份限制,資質要求,需要專案查核等等。
There are many ways to restrict foreign investment, such as shareholding limit, shareholder status limit, qualification requirement, need for project check, etc.

當設立子公司時 就有所謂內外資比例問題。
這時就牽涉到被投資國營業項目的問題,基本上有些行業禁止外資經營,禁止外資經營的陳述方式,有些是正面表列,有些是負面表列。
正面表列是指列出來的項目外資才能經營,其他不能。
負面表列是指列出來的項目外資不能經營,其他可以。

When a subsidiary is established, there is the so-called internal-external ratio.
At this point, the issue of the items of business of the investee country is involved. Basically, there are some industries which prohibit the operation of foreign capital, some of which are positive and some of which are negative, in the way in which they are stated.
The positive list refers to the listed project foreign capital can operate, other cannot.
Negative listing means that the listed project foreign capital can not be operated, other can.

有些行業雖然允許外資投資,但外資必須維持在一定比率以下。
例如泰國非製造業的外資資本額如在泰銖一億以下,泰國股東比例需在51%以上。
菲律賓本國企業定義為菲籍股權比例為60%以上。
印尼則有些產業規定外資只能佔到67%。
有許多行業在有些國家允許外資投資,但它是特許行業,例如食品需要向食品及藥品監督管理局辦食品流通許可證;有些是需要專業人員證照,例如建築設計需要建築師。
跨了一個國家,雖然在投資母國有經營該行業執照也有技師,可是都得重新辦理。

Some industries allow foreign investment, but foreign investment must be kept below a certain percentage.
For example, if Thailand’s non-manufacturing foreign capital is below 100 million baht, the proportion of Thai shareholders needs to be above 51%.
Philippine domestic enterprises are defined as Philippine equity shares of more than 60%.
Indonesia has some industries that require only 67 per cent of foreign investment.
There are many industries that allow foreign investment in some countries, but it is a licensed industry, such as food products that require a food distribution license from the Food and Drug Administration; Some require professional identification, such as architectural design, which requires an architect.
Cross a country, although in the home country to operate the industry license and technicians, but have to re-apply.

SPE-WW-30:特許行業與允許類限制類行業有什不同?
SPE-WW-30: What is the difference between the licensing industry and the permitted type of restricted industry?

特許行業係指需經該國管轄該事務的政府機構核准的行業,例如醫藥業需經過藥物監管單位核准。
限制類行業是指需經外商投資的管轄單位核准的行業。
限制類行業不一定是特許行業,但限制類行業如果也是特許行業,就有兩個單位都要核准。
允許類可能有些是特許行業,也需要管轄政府機關核准。

Licensed industries are those that require the approval of government agencies that have jurisdiction over the matter in that State, such as the pharmaceutical industry, which requires the approval of drug regulatory units.
Restricted industries refer to the industries that need to be approved by the jurisdiction of foreign investment.
The restricted industry is not necessarily the licensed industry, but if the restricted industry is also the licensed industry, there are two units to approve. Permissible classes may be in some cases licensed industries and may also require regulatory approval by government authorities.

SPE-WW-50:特許行業的避開策略?
SPE-WW-50: Avoidance Strategy for the Concession Industry?

在被投資國有生意,但是碰到特許行業這時候,最好的是設立1家非特許的公司,並和當地有特許證或有專業人員執照的公司合作。
逐漸地在當地把生意做起來,自然而然就可僱請其有專業人員執照,屆時再申請特許行業許可證。
一開始就想要一次到位,挑戰申請特許行業許可證,常常需耗費大量的資金,並冒較大的風險。

The best time to be invested in a state-owned business, but when it comes to the concession industry, the best thing is to set up a non-franchised company, And cooperate with local companies with a license or professional license.
Gradually the business is done locally, and it is only natural to hire a licensed professional to apply for a license to the licensed trade.
A one-off challenge to licensing in the licensing industry, which is often costly and risky at the outset, is what is required to obtain a license.

文件認證
Document authentication

LEG-WW-50
投資國相關文件認證
ü  需認證投資國相關文件為何?
ü  該國對投資國文件只要由專業人士實名認證?還是要經過雙方政府公證&認證手續? 此項規定之目的為何?
ü  投資國相關文件公證單位(法院公證處or 民間公證人)為何?
ü  投資相關文件投資國認證單位(外交部)名稱為何?
ü  投資相關文件認證單位(被投資國派駐在投資國駐外單位)為何?

LEG-WW-50
Certification of relevant documentation in home country
*What are the documents required to certify the home country?
*Is the country authenticating its investment country documentation only with a professional name? Still want to pass both government notarization& attestation procedure? What is the purpose of this provision?
*What is the relevant document notary unit in the country of investment (court notary public or notary public)?
*What is the name of the certification authority (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) in the country of investment related documentation?
*What are the investment-related documentation certification units (units of the investee country stationed abroad)?

LEG-WW-50
投資國相關文件認證
ü  需認證投資國相關文件為何?
ü  該國對投資國文件只要由專業人士實名認證?還是要經過雙方政府公證&認證手續? 此項規定之目的為何?
ü  投資國相關文件公證單位(法院公證處or 民間公證人)為何?
ü  投資相關文件投資國認證單位(外交部)名稱為何?
ü  投資相關文件認證單位(被投資國派駐在投資國駐外單位)為何?

LEG-WW-50
Certification of relevant documentation in home country
*What are the documents required to certify the home country?
*Is the country authenticating its investment country documentation only with a professional name? Still want to pass both government notarization& attestation procedure? What is the purpose of this provision?
*What is the relevant document notary unit in the country of investment (court notary public or notary public)?
*What is the name of the certification authority (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) in the country of investment related documentation?
*What are the investment-related documentation certification units (units of the investee country stationed abroad)?

LEG-WW-50:需認證投資相關文件為何?
LEG-WW-50: What are the documents required to certify the investment?

以自然人投資的話,最基本的是身分認證,有些只要護照認證,有些只要第二種證件加上護照同時認證。
有些國家相當在乎投資人的聯絡地址,因此要拿能夠證明該自然人確實住在該處的證明,例如水費、電力費或電話費等收據,拿去認證。
同時有些國家也相當在乎投資人是否有財力來投資,尤其是那些核准公司設立後才入資的國家,會要求自然人投資者提供財產證明,通常會相當於投資資本額或章程中規定的第一期預計注入資本額。
有些國家如菲律賓、土耳其等國,要求在核准前就必須在該國開戶存入相應的投資額,以該存款證明再往下辦理外資公司登記。

In the case of investments by natural persons, the most basic are identification, some are passport-specific and some are both passport-certified and the second is accompanied by passport-based.
Some States have considerable regard for the contact address of the investor and therefore have to prove that the natural person was actually residing there, Receipts such as water, electricity or phone bills are certified.
Some countries are also concerned about whether investors have the financial resources to invest, particularly in countries where the approved company is incorporated before it is invested, A natural person investor would be required to provide proof of property, which would normally be equivalent to the amount of the investment capital or the amount of the anticipated capital injection in the first phase set out in the charter.
Some countries, such as the Philippines and Turkey, require the deposit of a corresponding amount of investment in the country prior to approval in order to register the foreign-funded company with the certificate of deposit further down the line.

以公司法人投資的話,最基本的公司證明認證。
有些國家尚需要公司章程的認證、股東會成員及董事會成員認證,依照章程規定董事會的決議投資文件認證。
董事會決議指派外資公司法定代表文件認證。此外被指派為外資公司法定代表人的身分認證。

In the case of corporate investment, the most basic certification of the company.
In some countries, the certification of the articles of association, the members of the shareholders’ meeting and the members of the board of directors are still required to be certified in accordance with the articles of association, the investment documents approved by the resolutions of the board of directors.
The board of directors decides to appoint the legal representative document certification of the foreign-funded company. In addition, he is appointed as the legal representative of the foreign company.

同時許多國家,當委派該地的律師、會計師或當地公司、當地居民協助辦理外資子公司時,尚需就委派書作文件認證。
其他尚有公司法人投資者的財務報表認證,以證明該公司的財力。

At the same time, many countries still need to document the letter of appointment when appointing lawyers, accountants or local companies, and local residents to assist in the processing of foreign-funded subsidiaries in the area.
The financial statements of other corporate investors are certified to demonstrate the financial strength of the company.

LEG-WW-50:投資相關文件認證程序為何?
LEG-WW-50: What is the investment-related documentation certification process?

被投資國為能確實掌握投資方在他的母國是真實存在而且資信良好,就必須有文件認證的制度。
舉一個例子,台灣1家公司欲投資越南,首先要把公司的文件從經濟部商業司那邊申請出來,然後拿到公證人或法院公證處公證,公證後再寄到台灣的外交部去認證,最後再送到越南駐台灣代表處認證,經過這些手續的文件才能繳交到越南政府工商登記單位去充當申請時的必備文件。

In order for the investee country to be sure that the investor exists in its home country and has good credit standing, it must have a documented certification system.
For example, if a Taiwanese company wants to invest in Vietnam, it must first apply for the company’s documents from the Department of Commerce of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Then get notarized or notarized by the Notary Public Office of the Court, notarized and then sent to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Taiwan for authentication, and finally sent to the Vietnamese Representative Office in Taiwan for certification, Documents that have gone through these procedures can be submitted to the Vietnamese Government’s Industrial and Commercial Registration Authority as the necessary documents for the application.

但也有些國家文件認證,只要合格的律師公證人,或會計師簽證過就算數,不必這麼麻煩。
例如英國的個人身份文件認證,只要他國的會計師願意簽名認證就可以。
馬來西亞對於新加坡國家投資公司的認證,也只要有英國註冊會計師協會會員的會計師認證就可以了。

However, some countries document certification, as long as the qualified lawyers and notaries, or accountants visa on the count, do not need to be so troublesome.
For example, the United Kingdom’s personal identification documents certification, as long as accountants in other countries are willing to sign the certification. Malaysia’s certification of the Singapore National Investment Corporation is only as long as it is certified by an accountant who is a member of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of the United Kingdom.

申辦外資公司程序
Procedures for Applying for a Foreign Company

LEG-WW-60
申辦外資公司程序:
ü  該國名稱預查申請困難或容易?透明度如何?
ü  該國的外資審議機構名稱是什麼?申請審查要什文件?申請期間要多久?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  該國公司登記主管機關是法院?還是行政機關?公司章程需要公證人公證嗎? 此項規定之目的為何?
ü  資本金是在登記主管機關核准前要匯入?還是核准後匯入?

LEG-WW-60
Procedures for Applying for a Foreign Company:
*Is it difficult or easy to pre-screen a name in the country? How transparent?
*What is the name of the country’s foreign investment review body? What documents are required to apply for review? How long does the application period take? What is the purpose of this provision?
*Is the country’s company registration authority a court? Or the executive? Does the company charter need notarization by a notary public? What is the purpose of this provision?
*Are capital remittances made prior to the approval of the competent registration authority? Approved and remitted?

LEG-WW-60:該國名稱預查申請困難或容易?透明度如何?
LEG-WW-60: Is it difficult or easy to pre-check a name in the country? How transparent?

投資國文件認證后,到被投資國的第一道程序通常是公司查名並保留其名稱,在經濟高度發展的城市,例如上海市要照母公司的期望,來查名並保留名稱是相當困難的,因為太多公司已在上海市註冊了。相對地經濟發展比較弱的城市查名容易。

After the certification of the documentation of the investor country, the first procedure to be followed in the country of investment is usually for the company to register and retain its name, In cities with a high level of economic development, such as Shanghai, it is quite difficult to name and retain names according to the expectations of the parent company, as too many companies are already registered in Shanghai. Relatively weak economic development of cities are easy to identify.

LEG-WW-60:該國的外資審議機構名稱是什麼?申請審查要什文件? 申請期間要多久? 此項規定之目的為何?
LEG-WW-60: What is the name of the country’s foreign investment review body? What documents are required to apply for review? How long does the application period take? What is the purpose of this provision?

此外被投資國文件,尤其是外資公司的公司章程,是否要經過Notary(法院認可之公證人)認證,是一個較不容易理解的實務。
在大部分國家公司章程不需要認證。如公司章程需要Notary認證,代表在該國的設立公司代理人就是Notary。
在德國經Notary認證后,送交給法院,該外資公司的法律實體即成立。
日本、印尼、西班牙、義大利、荷蘭等這些國家都有公證人(Notary)制度。

In addition, whether the documents of the country of investment, especially the articles of association of the foreign company, should be certified by Notary, a Notary recognized by the court, is a more difficult practice to understand.
In most countries, no certification is required for company charters.
If the charter of the company requires Notary certification, the company’s representative in the country is Notary.
After being certified by Notary, Germany was sent to the court and the legal entity of the foreign company was established.
Japan, Indonesia, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands and other countries have Notary system.

LEG-WW-60:該國公司登記主管機關是法院?還是行政機關?公司章程需要公證人公證嗎?此項規定之目的為何?
LEG-WW-60: Is the company registration authority in this country a court? Or the executive? Does the company charter need notarization by a notary public? What is the purpose of this provision?

公司章程不需要認證的國家都有一個非屬法務系統的專責單位負責。有些國家的公司章程經Notary認證后,大部分交給法務系統,但有些不是交給法務系統,而是專屬的外資公司登記單位,來核可法律實體的存在。
Countries whose charters do not require certification have a dedicated unit that is not part of the legal system. In some countries, company charters are certified by Notary, Most of these are handed over to the Legal Affairs System, but some are not handed over to the Legal Affairs System, but rather to the exclusive Foreign Companies Registration Unit, which approves the existence of legal entities.

LEG-WW-60:資本金是在登記主管機關核准前要匯入?還是核准後匯入?
LEG-WW-60: Is the capital to be remitted before the Registration Authority approves it? Approved and remitted?

有些國家的在公司登記前,必須先開公司的籌備戶,並將投資的資本金先行匯入,並拿出存款證明,才能一起申請公司。
像德國在給公證人(Notary)作公司章程認證時,就必須繳交25,000的歐元;
又像菲律賓在遞出申請給SEC核可前,就必須開籌備戶匯入20萬美元到該戶頭,並附上存款證明才可以申請公司。

In some countries, the company must open its preparatory account before registration and remit the capital invested in the company in advance and produce a certificate of deposit in order to apply for the company together.
Germany, for example, must pay 25, 000 euros to certify its articles of association with Notary;
Another example is that the Philippines has to open a preparatory account to remit US$ 200,000 to the account before submitting the application for approval to the SEC, together with a certificate of deposit before it can apply for the company.

有些國家在公司登記后,才開銀行戶,再將資本金匯進來,這像中國、越南都是如此。
Some countries open a bank account and remit the capital in after the company is registered, as in China and Vietnam.

台灣採折衷制,投審會核准後開籌備戶,並將投資的資本金匯入,然後附上存款證明到商業司申請公司。
Taiwan adopts the compromise system, after the Investment Commission approves, opens the preparatory account, and remits the investment capital, then encloses the certificate of deposit to the Commercial Department to apply for the company.

跨國企業外資子公司的銀行開戶
Bank Account for Foreign Subsidiaries of Multinational Enterprises

INI-WW-30
跨國企業外資子公司的銀行開戶
ü  公司設立與銀行開戶、資本金到位的先後順序為何?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  CSR環境下之銀行開戶秘訣?
ü  外資銀行戶&在地內資銀行戶如何交互運用?
ü     該國企業網路銀行開戶普遍嗎?一次性費用多少?每年費用多少?有沒有最低存款規定?
ü  尚未開好在地內資銀行戶前之代收代付服務方式為何?

INI-WW-30

*Bank account opening of foreign subsidiaries of multinational enterprises what is the order in which the company is set up and the bank opens an account and the capital is in place?

What is the purpose of this provision?

*Tips for opening a bank account in a CSR environment?

*How do foreign banks interact with domestic banks?

*Is it common for the country’s corporate network bank to open an account? How much is the one-time fee? How much is the annual fee? Is there a minimum deposit requirement? How is the collection and payment service in front of the local domestic bank account?

  • INI-WW-30:資本金到位、銀行開戶與辦理公司登記的先後順序為何?

INI-WW-30: What is the order in which capital is available, bank accounts are opened and companies are registered?

有些國家或經濟體,是先資本金到位,再往下辦理公司登記,例如台灣、菲律賓、土耳其等。其實務通常是預先用一名外籍法人代表預查名稱,然後投資審議委員會核准後,用該預查名稱開立籌備處銀行戶,將投資款匯入後,再開始往下到商業司辦理外資公司。以台灣為例,外籍法人必須來台灣先到內政部,依外國護照取得台灣的臨時身分證號,然後用該證號,到銀行申請籌備戶,然後匯款進來後,拿著註冊會計師的驗資證明。而在菲律賓則在送件到SEC審核之前,就必須銀行開戶並匯入USD 200,000,才能往下辦理。

Some countries or economies, such as Taiwan, the Philippines, Turkey and so on, have put capital in place first and then go on to register companies. The actual purpose is usually to pre-check the name with a foreign legal representative, after the approval of the Investment Review Committee, the bank account of the preparatory office is opened with the pre-check name, the investment funds are remitted to the Department of Commerce and the foreign company is dealt with. Take Taiwan as an example. Foreign legal persons must come to Taiwan first to the Ministry of the Interior and obtain Taiwan’s provisional identity card number on the basis of a foreign passport, Then use this card number, apply to the bank to prepare the account, and then the remittance comes in, take the certified public accountant’s capital verification certificate. In the Philippines, bank accounts must be opened and remitted to USD 200000 before a shipment can be sent to the SEC for audit.

有些國家或經濟體,資本金則是在公司執照拿到後才將資本金匯入。例如中國,各省市商委會核准,再經工商局(五證合一)取得公司資格後,才需要去開銀行戶頭並且匯款進來,而且資本金可以依公司章程分期按需要匯進來。

In some countries or economies, the capital is remitted only after the company’s license has been obtained. For example, in China, the provincial and municipal trade commissions approved by the Commerce and Industry Bureau (Five-in-One) to obtain the qualification of the company, Need to open a bank account and remit the money, and the capital can be remitted according to the company’s articles of association according to the need.

  • INI-WW-30:外資銀行戶及內資銀行戶如何交互運用?

INI-WW-30: How do foreign banks and domestic banks interact?

當然為了外資子公司的公司治理問題,通常一般銀行帳戶會開立兩個銀行帳戶,通稱為大帳戶、小帳戶。大帳戶通常為投資國所在地銀行在當地的分行。小帳戶通常為在地的銀行用來支付水電費、一般費用。

Of course, for the sake of the corporate governance of foreign affiliates, usually the general bank account will open two bank accounts, commonly known as large accounts, small accounts. Large accounts are usually local branches of banks in the home country of the investor. Small accounts are usually used by local banks to pay utilities and general expenses.

在海外設立據點時採用非審計服務的公司,在財務控管上必須開立兩個銀行帳戶通常第一個稱為收款帳戶,或稱為大帳戶;用來作匯入資本金以及銷售收款時使用,以及大額供應商付款使用。第二個帳戶稱為付款帳戶,或稱為小帳戶,通常用來支付薪資,員工及辦公室費用,以及營業稅稅款,所得稅扣繳稅款,社會保險健康保險及退休金等款項。

Companies that use non-audit services when setting up positions overseas must open two bank accounts in financial control, usually the first being called a collection account or a large account; It is used for remittance of capital and sales receipts, as well as for payment by large suppliers. The second account is called a payment account, or a small account, It is usually used to pay salaries, employee and office expenses, as well as business tax, income tax withholding tax, social insurance, health insurance and pension payments.

大帳戶通常可以是跟母公司有往來的外商銀行,在當地國分行或子行開立的帳戶。

A large account can usually be an account opened with a foreign bank, a branch or a branch office in the local country, with which the parent company has dealings.

而小帳戶通常是該國的地方銀行,因為稅款及保險費用的代收代付,只限於該國的地方銀行承作。

Small accounts, on the other hand, are usually local banks in the country, since the collection and payment of taxes and insurance costs is limited to local banks in the country.

在海外設立據點時,採用非審計服務的公司,在支付循環,必須使用網路銀行功能,通常網路銀行功能有三個角色:製單者,覆核者,放行者;需將第一關的製單者,交由非審計服務廠商所指派熟悉當地法規遵循的服務人員來執行。

Companies using non-audit services when establishing a presence overseas, In the payment cycle, you must use the network banking function. Usually, the network banking function has three roles: the orderer, the reviewer, the releaser; The order maker of the first level shall be assigned by the non-audit service provider to service personnel who are familiar with the local laws and regulations to execute it.

因為如有母公司的財務人員支付後,再交由非審計服務業者來作帳,一方面如發現不符當地法規,由於款項已經付出去,駟馬難追,要補救要費許多力氣和時間;另方面母公司和子公司的會計帳,常因某些付款交易時間差,造成要對帳,勞民傷財。

Because if a parent company treasurer pays, In the case of non-audit service providers, on the one hand, if it is found to be inconsistent with local laws and regulations, the payment has already been made, and it is difficult to recover, much effort and time is required; On the other hand, the accounting books of the parent company and its subsidiaries often result from the time lag of certain payment transactions, which results in the need to reconcile the accounts with the interests of the public.

  • INI-WW-30:CRS環境下之銀行開戶訣竅?

INI-WW-30: How to open a bank account in CRS environment?

為打擊海外逃漏稅,2010 年美國國會頒布「海外帳戶稅收遵循法案」(即 FATCA 條款),要求所有美國境外的金融機構,必須定期將美國公民和美國稅務居民所持有的金融帳戶資料提供給美國國稅局 (IRS),2017年起金融機構 (FI) 提交的資料範圍又增加金融資產的處分收入,追稅的力道可以見得是愈來愈大。各國政府間群起效尤,另一波全球性的肥咖條款 — 共同報告標準 (CRS;全名 Common Reporting Standard for Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information in Tax Matters)更是來勢汹汹(羅友三,2017/02/22)

To combat tax evasion overseas, the US Congress enacted the Offshore Accounts Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) in 2010, require all financial institutions outside the U.S. to regularly provide the IRS with financial account information held by U.S. citizens and U.S. tax residents. Since 2017, the scope of information submitted by financial institutions (FIs) has increased the proceeds of disposal of financial assets, and the impact of tax recovery can be seen to be increasing. Governments have been particularly effective, with another wave of global fattening clauses – common reporting standards (CRS); full name Common Reporting Standard for Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information in Tax Matters) He is more aggressive (Luo Yousan, 2017/02/22).

中國或越南外匯管制國家有資本戶以及一般戶,而且資本戶可能規定必須是有辦理外匯的當地國批准的銀行。因此一開始就必須在當地國開立當地的銀行戶頭,而且開立當地銀行戶頭時,通常外資子公司的法人代表必需在場,但是外資子公司的法人代表通常不是派駐當地的經理人,不方便停留在被投資地許多天,因此有實質上的困難。

China or Viet Nam has a capital account as well as a general account, and the capital account may stipulate that it must be a bank authorized by the local country in which the foreign exchange is handled. Therefore, a local bank account must be opened in the local country from the outset, and when a local bank account is opened, While the legal representative of a foreign subsidiary must be present, the legal representative of the foreign subsidiary is usually not a local manager and does not stay for many days at the place where the investment was made, which makes it difficult in practice.

這種情形通常先找到被投資地的銀行在投資者當地銀行經理轉介過來會比較順利。例如一家加拿大的溫哥華公司,要投資上海,他們找到中國銀行在溫哥華的分行經理,在那邊開戶並往來,同時請其推介上海市閔行區的中國銀行龍柏分行,如此開立起來就會順暢得多。通常先找到被投資地的銀行在投資者當地銀行經理轉介過來會比較順利。

This is usually the case where the bank where the investment was made is referred by the investor’s local bank manager. For example, a Canadian company, Vancouver, wants to invest in Shanghai and they find a branch manager of the Bank of China in Vancouver, Open an account there and do business with each other, and ask them to recommend the Bank of China, Long Bai Branch in Minhang District, Shanghai, so it will be a lot smoother when opened. Usually, it’s easier to find the bank where the investment was made and refer it to the local bank manager of the investor’s local bank.

  • 外資子公司註冊地址與營運地址的問題

The Problem of Registered Address and Operating Address of Foreign Subsidiary;

LEG-WW-40
註冊地址VS 營運地址
ü   該國一個地址只能註冊一家公司嗎?此項規定之目的為何?
ü   該國外資子公司永久註冊地址與營運地址可以不同嗎?此項規定之目的為何?
ü   該國註冊期間的暫時地址和未來營運地址的規定如何?
ü   該國特許行業註冊地址規定?此項規定之目的為何?

LEG-WW-40

Registered Address VS Operating Address

*Can only one company be registered at a single address in the country? What is the purpose of this provision?

*Can the permanent registered address of a foreign subsidiary in the country be different from the operating address? What is the purpose of this provision?

*What are the requirements for a temporary address and a future operating address for the period of registration in the country?

*What are the registered addresses of the licensed industries in the country? What is the purpose of this provision?

LEG-WW-40:註冊期間的地址和未來營運地址的規定如何?

LEG-WW-40: What are the requirements for addresses and future operating addresses during registration?

對於被投資國為甚麼相當在意外商子公司需有註冊地址,應該是政府害怕皮包公司的存在,皮包公司通常是沒有真實交易而提供發票給其他公司抵稅,所謂賣假發票,同時也可能用來洗錢等不法用途。外商子公司可能以人頭法人代表,做了這些不法情事,往往在國外,這樣的情形常令在地政府非常頭痛,因而期望外商子公司必須有實際經營地址。

Why is the investee country concerned about the need for a registered address for a foreign subsidiary, The government should be afraid of the existence of shell companies, which usually offer invoices to other companies for tax purposes without a real transaction, so-called fake invoices, and may also be used for illegal purposes such as money laundering. The foreign subsidiary may have committed these unlawful acts in the name of the legal person of the head, often abroad. This often causes a great headache to the local government and the foreign subsidiary is expected to have an actual business address.

但是許多國家的行政效率緩慢,有些國家一個月內可以完成公司設立,但有些國家往往需要3~4個月,甚至6個月。

However, many countries have slow administrative efficiency, with some completing the establishment of a company within a month, while others may take three to four months, or even six months.

在尚未取得公司執照營業執照之前就必須先簽租約,並籌備4-6個月,甚且擔心拿不到公司執照及營運執照,這實在妨礙外資投資投入的動機。

You must sign a lease before you can obtain a business license for the company, Moreover, the Government has prepared for four to six months, and even worried that it would not be able to obtain a company license or operating License. This is indeed a disincentive to foreign investment in investment.

每到一個城市,我們就會去拜訪招商當局,告訴他們外商子公司這個困難。因此許多國家會用在地董事來牽制,就比較不會在意註冊地址。也有許多國家讓官方機構提供免費註冊地址,讓外資子公司在公司登記期間免支付房租,俟取得公司執照及營業執照並可開立發票之前,才要承租實際營業地址。減輕外資子公司設立籌備期間的租金費用。尤其是這些提供免費註冊地址的官方機構,若在手上擁有讓外資子公司可以擔任實際營運地址辦公廠房,更是熱衷。

Every time we go to a city, we visit the China Merchants Administration and tell them about the difficulty of foreign subsidiaries. So many countries use local directors to keep a lid on them, and they are less likely to care about a registered address. There are also many countries where state agencies provide free registration addresses for foreign affiliates to avoid paying rent during company registration, The actual business address is rented only after obtaining the company license and business license and issuing the invoice. To reduce the rental cost during the preparatory period for the establishment of foreign-funded subsidiaries. In particular, these official agencies that offer free registration addresses are more interested in having foreign subsidiaries that can serve as actual operating premises.

  • LEG-WW-40:特許行業及限制投資行業註冊地址問題

LEG-WW-40: Registered Addresses in Franchising and Restricted Investment Industries

允許外資投資行業,例如一般商品的進出口貿易與銷售行業,顧問行業,這些的註冊地址是可以先在商務中心或由律師、註冊會計師,公司登記代辦機構等安排虛擬註冊地址。等到實際營運時,再租用實際營運地址,而且原來的虛擬註冊地址可以繼續用,也就是說,註冊地址與實際地址可以倂存。

Allow foreign investment industries, such as general merchandise import and export trade and sales, and consultancy services, These registered addresses can be first arranged in the Business Center or by lawyers, CPAs, Companies Registration Agency, etc. The virtual registered address can be arranged. When the actual operation takes place, the actual business address can be rented and the original virtual registered address can continue to be used, that is to say, the registered address and the actual address can be stored.

但是特許行業及限制外資投資行業,通常有設立條件,必需就地審查,較不容易使用虛擬註冊地址,來註冊有特許行業或限制外資投資類行業的外資公司。

But franchising and foreign-funded investment industries usually have conditions in place that require on-the-spot examination, It is less easy to use virtual registration addresses to register foreign-funded companies in licensed industries or in industries where foreign investment is restricted.

所以我們通常會建議跨國公司,避開申請特許行業或限制投資行業,先著陸去登記一個允許外資投資行業的公司,與當地有資質的公司共同合作,再慢慢自行取得這些資質,如此穏打穏紮往前是比較實際的。

So we usually recommend that multinational companies, instead of applying for a franchise or restricting the investment industry, register a company that allows foreign investment in the industry first, It would be more practical to work with local qualified companies and then slowly acquire these qualifications on their own initiative, so that the fight ahead is more realistic.

  • 外資子公司投資額、註冊資本額與政府規費的問題

The Amount of Investment, Registered Capital and Government Fee in Foreign Subsidiary Companies;

LEG-WW-25
投資額、授權資本、已認股本、已支付股本、政府規費
ü   該國有投資額=資本額+貸款額之規定嗎?
ü   該國對外資有最低投資額限制嗎?資本額與貸款額比例有規定嗎?
ü   該國有授權資本、已認股本、已支付股本之規定嗎?
ü   該國對外資有最低授權資本限制嗎?最低支付股本比例有規定嗎?
ü   該國對外資公司之政府規費的規定為何?
ü   該國對外資公司之政府規費與授權資本、已認股本、已支付股本的關係為何?

LEG-WW-25

Investment, Authorized Capital, Subscribed Capital, Paid Capital, Government Fee

*Does the country have investment = capital + loan amount?

*Does the country have a minimum investment limit for foreign investment? Is there a capital-to-loan ratio?

*Does the country have authorized capital, subscribed equity, paid equity?

*Does the country have minimum authorized capital limits on foreign investment? Is there a requirement for the minimum paid share capital ratio?

*What are the requirements for government fees for foreign-funded companies in the country?

*What is the relationship between the government fee for a foreign company and the authorized capital, subscribed capital and paid-up capital?

  • LEG-WW-25:外資子公司政府規費的規定為何?

LEG-WW-25: What are the requirements for government fees for foreign affiliates?

外資公司設立通常第一關,會先經過各國或經濟體的外資審核單位,然後再經過公司登記轄管單位。更可能尚需辦理各項稅證號,如中央政府所得稅稅證、地方政府所得稅稅證、中央營業稅稅證、地方營業稅稅證。也可能需辦理薪資相關證號,如社會保險證號、健康保險證號、退休金證號、勞動部證號。以及行業與產品相關證號,如進出口證號、產品證號、特許行業證號。

The establishment of a foreign-funded company is usually the first stage, which is subject to the examination and approval of the foreign capital of each country or economy, and then to the registration and administration of the company. More likely, we need to deal with various tax certificates, such as central government income tax certificate, local government income tax certificate, central business tax certificate and local business tax certificate. May also need to handle payroll related card number, such as social insurance certificate number, health insurance certificate number, pension card number, labor ministry certificate number. And the industry and product-related license number, such as import and export license number, product license number, license trade certificate number.

這些證號的申請,相關轄管政府都基於使用者付費原則,向外資子公司收取政府規費。有些轄管政府單位基於其任務為鼓勵外人投資,例如外資審核單位,並不會向投資者收取規費。有些轄管政府單位將外資與內資分開來,只要牽涉到外資的政府規費高於內資很多。在外資公司登記這一塊的政府規費,大部分依照資本額的一定比率。而資本額也有不同種類的講究,下面介紹。

The application for these CDs, which are administered by the governments concerned, are based on the user fee principle and charge government fees from foreign subsidiaries. Some government agencies do not charge investors a fee because of their role in encouraging non-Government investors to invest, such as foreign audit institutions. Some government departments separate foreign investment from domestic investment. As long as the government fee for foreign investment is higher than that for domestic investment, the government fee is much higher. Most of the government fees for registration in a foreign-funded company are at a certain percentage of the amount of capital. And the amount of capital also has different kinds of attention, introduced below.

  • LEG-WW-25:外資子公司政府規費與授權資本、已認股本、已支付股本的關係為何?

LEG-WW-25: What is the relationship between foreign affiliates’ government fees and authorized capital, subscribed capital and paid-up capital?

英美法系的公司法裡頭有授權資本(Authorized Capital),已認股本(Issued Capital),已支付股本(Paid-up Capital)三層。

Anglo-American corporate law has Authorized Capital, Issued Capital and Paid-up Capital, three levels of Paid-up equity.

已認股本,但尚未實際支付股本部分,未來公司的債權人有權利要求補回股金。好處是讓經理人先認了,尚不必繳交全額股本。未來股利是依照實際交付股本比例來分配。

The share capital has been subscribed, but the share capital has not yet been paid, and the creditors of the future company have the right to demand a refund of the share capital. The advantage is that the manager takes the lead and does not have to pay the full share capital. Future dividends are allocated in proportion to actual paid-in share capital.

例如菲律賓一家外資子公司可以設定成320萬美金授權資本額,最小1/4已認資本額80萬美金,最小再1/4實際支付股本20萬美金。在菲律賓外資超過40%以上,最低實際支付股本門檻為20萬美金,而且必須在公司設立申請之前就必須匯入,匯款單成為公司設立申請時必備文件之一。

For example, a foreign subsidiary in the Philippines could be set at $3.2 million of authorized capital, A minimum of US$ 800,000 of pledged capital, and a minimum of US$ 200,000 of paid-in capital. In the Philippines more than 40 per cent foreign investment, the minimum effective equity payment threshold is $200,000, The remittance must be made before the application for the establishment of the company, and the remittance form is one of the necessary documents for the establishment of the company.

同時公司登記相關的規費的計算基礎不一樣,例如上述菲律賓馬尼拉政府,中央政府SEC是以授權資本來計算政府規費,菲國國稅局是以已認股本來計算政府規費,而馬尼拉市是以實際支付股本來計算政府規費。

At the same time, the basis for calculating the relevant fees for company registration is different. For example, the Philippine Government in Manila, the Central Government’s SEC uses the authorized capital to calculate the government fees, The Philippine Internal Revenue Service calculates government fees on the basis of pre-subscribed shares, while the city of Manila calculates government fees on the basis of actual share capital payments.

大陸法系,則只有兩層,授權資本(Authorized Capita)及已認已支付資本(Issued and paid-up Capital)。政府規費通常以授權資本額來計算。

In civil law, there are only two layers of Authorized Capita (Authorized Capita) and recognized paid Capita ( Issued and paid-up Capital). Government fees are usually calculated on the basis of authorized capital.

有些地區尚有投資額與註冊資本額的講究,例如中國和越南,投資額100萬美金中註冊資本額可能是50萬美金,借款50萬美金,這樣設計的目的是讓未來外資可以借入更多週轉金,當運轉順利,有剩餘的資金,可以還海外的借款。外匯管制的國家常常有這樣的操作,這樣對外資投資資金的匯回帶來了方便性。

In some areas, there is a fine line between investment and registered capital, such as China and Vietnam, where the registered capital of $1 million may be $500,000 of the total investment, The $500,000 loan is designed so that future foreign capital can borrow more working capital, and when things go smoothly, there is surplus money that can be repaid overseas. This is often the case in countries where foreign exchange controls operate, which facilitates the repatriation of foreign investment funds.

  • 各類外資子公司證號的申請

Application for Various Kinds of Foreign Subsidiaries

LEG-WW-70
公司註冊號碼:
ü   該國的法律實體的證號:公司註冊號碼由中央核發?或由各省核發?
INI-WW-80
公司所得稅稅務證號:
ü  該國公司所得稅只是中央所得稅?還是有中央所得稅及地方所得稅?
ü  假如有中央所得稅及地方所得稅:有中央所得稅註冊號碼?有地方營業稅註冊號碼? 此項規定之目的為何?
ü  該國公司所得稅稅務證號與公司註冊證號相同嗎? 此項規定之目的為何?
ü  假如有中央所得稅及地方所得稅,課徵時是分開各自課徵嗎?
ü  假如有中央所得稅及地方所得稅是一起課徵,由哪個單位課徵?
ü  其他該國”營利事業所得稅規定”與外資公司設立規劃注意事項?
ü  其他該國”跨國稅務規定”與外資公司設立規劃注意事項?
INI-WW-15
扣繳證號-需扣繳之各類所得稅:
ü  該國需扣繳之各類所得稅稅務證號與公司所得稅稅務證號相同嗎?
ü  該國需扣繳之各類所得稅只是中央所得稅?還是有中央所得稅及地方所得稅?
ü  假如有中央所得稅及地方所得稅:有中央註冊號碼?有地方註冊號碼?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  假如有中央所得稅及地方所得稅,課徵時是分開各自課徵嗎?
ü  假如有中央所得稅及地方所得稅是一起課徵,由哪個單位課徵?
ü  其他該國”需扣繳之各類所得稅規定”與外資公司設立規劃注意事項?
INI-WW-20
營業稅稅務號碼
ü  該國營業稅只是中央營業稅?還是有中央營業稅及地方營業稅?
ü  假如有中央營業稅及地方營業稅:有中央營業稅註冊號碼?有地方營業稅註冊號碼? 此項規定之目的為何?
ü  該國營業稅稅務證號與所得稅稅務證號相同嗎?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  假如有中央營業稅及地方營業稅,課徵時是分開各自課徵嗎?
ü  假如有中央營業稅及地方營業稅是一起課徵,由哪個單位課徵?
ü  其他該國“營業稅規定”與外資公司設立規劃注意事項?
INI-WW-40
員工社會福利證號;
ü  社會保險證號?主管社會保險政府機構名稱?
ü  醫療保險證號?主管醫療保險政府機構名稱?
ü  退休金證號?主管退休金政府機構名稱?
ü  以上三項證號是合一還是分開的? 此項規定之目的為何?
ü  各項社會福利費之課徵,課徵時是分開各自課徵嗎?
ü  各項社會福利費之課徵,假如是一起課徵,由哪個單位課徵?
ü  該國各項社會福利證號與公司註冊證號相同嗎?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  其他該國”薪資法規”與外資公司設立規劃注意事項?
INI-WW-50
勞動管理當局證號
ü  該國需要申請勞動相關證號嗎?主管勞動管理當局政府機構名稱?
ü  該國勞動相關證號與公司註冊證號相同嗎?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  其他該國”勞動法規”與外資公司設立規劃注意事項?
INI-WW-60
進出口證號
ü  該國進出口證號是由中央統一發證嗎?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  該國進出口證號與產品代號HS code 有關嗎?需要相關產業主管機關審核發證嗎?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  該國進出口證號與公司註冊證號相同嗎? 此項規定之目的為何?
INI-WW-70
政府規費
ü  申請所得稅稅證規費多少?
ü  申請營業稅稅證規費多少?
ü  申請各項社會福利證號規費多少?
ü  申請勞動管理證號規費多少?
ü  申請進出口證號規費多少?
ü  申請網路銀行帳戶規費多少?

LEG-WW-70

Company Registration Number:

*Certificate of the legal entity of the State: Is the company’s registration number centrally issued? Or issued by the provinces?

INI-WW-80

Tax Certificate Number of Corporate Income Tax:

*Is the country’s corporate income tax a central income tax? Or is there a central income tax and a local income tax?

*If there is a central income tax and a local income tax: is there a central income tax registration number? Is there a Local Sales Tax Registration Number? What is the purpose of this provision?

*Is the Company Income Tax Certificate Number the same as the Company Registration Certificate Number in the country? What is the purpose of this provision?

*If there is a central income tax and a local income tax, will they be levied separately when they are levied?

*If there is central income tax and local income tax is levied together, by which unit?

*What should be noted in the plans for the establishment of foreign-funded companies with regard to the income tax provisions for profit-making enterprises in other countries?

*What are the national “transnational tax provisions” and planning considerations for foreign-funded companies?

INI-WW-15

Withholding Certificate Number – Amount of Income Tax to Be Withheld:

*Are the various types of income tax certificates to be withheld in the country the same as corporate income tax certificates?

*What types of income tax to be withheld in the country is only central income tax? Or is there a central income tax and a local income tax?

*If there is a central income tax and local income tax: is there a central registration number? There’s a local registration number? What is the purpose of this provision?

*If there is a central income tax and a local income tax, will they be levied separately when they are levied?

*If there is central income tax and local income tax is levied together, by which unit?

*What are the requirements for withholding income tax in other countries and what should be noted in the establishment planning of foreign-funded companies?

INI-WW-20

Tax no. of sales tax

*Is the country’s sales tax just a central sales tax? Or is there a central sales tax and a local sales tax?

*If there is central business tax and local business tax: Is there a central business tax registration number? Is there a Local Sales Tax Registration Number? What is the purpose of this provision?

*Is the Tax Certificate of Business Tax of the country the same as the Tax Certificate of Income Tax? What is the purpose of this provision?

*If there is a central business tax and a local business tax, will they be levied separately when levied?

*If there is a central business tax and a local business tax are levied together, by which unit?

*What are the points for attention in other country’s “Business Tax Provisions” and foreign-funded company establishment planning?

INI-WW-40

Employee Social Welfare Card Number;

*Social security number? Name of the government agency in charge of social insurance?

*Medical insurance number? Name of the government agency in charge of medical insurance?

*Pension certificate number? Name of the government body responsible for pensions?

*Are the above three identification numbers one or separate? What is the purpose of this provision?

*Are the various social welfare levies levied separately when they are levied?

*What is the charge for various social welfare costs, if it is a levy together, by which unit?

*Are the country’s social welfare number the same as the company’s registration number? What is the purpose of this provision?

*What are the other country’s “pay regulations” and planning considerations for foreign-funded companies?

INI-WW-50

Certificate number of labor administration authority

*Does the country need to apply for a labour-related certificate number? Name of the government agency in charge of labour administration?

*Is the labour-related certificate number the same as the company registration number in the country? What is the purpose of this provision?

*other country “labor regulations” and foreign-funded company establishment planning points?

INI-WW-60

Import and Export License Number

*Is the import and export License number issued by the Central People’s Government? What is the purpose of this provision?

*Does the country’s import and export License number relate to the product code HS Does the relevant industry authority need to verify and issue licenses? What is the purpose of this provision?

*Is the country’s import and export License number the same as the company’s registration number? What is the purpose of this provision?

INI-WW-70

Government fees

*What is the fee for applying for income tax certificates?

*What is the fee for applying for Business Tax Certificate?

*What is the fee for applying for various social welfare card numbers?

*What is the fee for applying for a labour management certificate number?

*What is the fee for applying for an import and export License number?

*How much to apply for online bank account fee?

總結各國的各項證號種類:

Summarize the various country identification numbers:

LEG-WW-70:有關法律實體的證號:由中央核發?或由各省核發?全國(聯邦)級公司證號,省(州)級公司證號,

LEG-WW-70: Identification number of relevant legal entities: issued by the Central Authority? Or issued by the provinces? National (federal) corporate card number, provincial (state) corporate card number,

INI-WW-80:有關租稅實體的證號:國稅證號?地方稅證號?全國(聯邦)稅證證號,省(州)稅證證號,

INI-WW-80: Certificate Number of the Tax Entity: National Tax Certificate Number? Local tax number? National (Federal) Tax Certificate Number, Provincial (State) Tax Certificate Number,

INI-WW-20:有關營業稅證號:中央營業稅證號?地方營業稅證號?全國增值稅證號,省(州)增值稅證號,

INI-WW-20: Business Tax Certificate Number: Central Business Tax Certificate Number? Local Business Tax Certificate Number? National value-added tax number, provincial (state) value-added tax number,

INI-WW-40:社會保險證號,醫療保險證號,退休金證號,其他積金如住房公積金證號

INI-WW-40: Social Insurance Certificate Number, Medical Insurance Certificate Number, Pension Certificate Number, Other MPF Number, Housing Provident Fund Number

INI-WW-50:勞工工會證號

INI-WW-50: Labor Union Certificate Number

INI-WW-60進出口證號

INI-WW-60 Import and Export License Number

SPE-ww-60還有特許行業證號。

SPE-ww-60 also has the license trade number.

為甚麼會有這麼多的證號?因為管轄的政府單位不同,經費分配不同,各級政府資訊系統沒有統一,每一家公司與不同政府管轄單位都必須申請一個帳號。

Why are there so many ID cards? Because of the different government units under their jurisdiction and the different allocation of funds, there is no uniform system of government information at all levels. Every company and each government jurisdiction must apply for one account number.

不同政府間帳號不同,造成外商子公司的不便,往往申請一家外資公司需要3-4個月以上。聯合國下屬的世界銀行就有ㄧ個附屬網頁www.doingbusiness.org針對外資子公司在各國的方便度,每年作排名。因此各國也都致力於改革。其方法就是統一證號,並將審核單位集中在同一窗口,這涉及到政府各部門組織重整,因此能夠代表該國的政府變成更有效率,投資環境愈好。

Different intergovernmental account number is different, cause the inconvenience of foreign subsidiary company, often apply for a foreign capital company to need 3-4 months more. The World Bank, affiliated with the United Nations, hasㄧweb pages, www.doingbusiness.org, which are ranked annually for the convenience of foreign affiliates in each country. Countries are therefore committed to reform. The method is to unify the identification number and to centralize the audit unit in the same window, which involves reorganizing the various branches of government, so that the Government that can represent the country becomes more efficient and the investment environment is better.

最近統一證號改革,最明顯的是中國,從三證合一然後五證合一。省(市)級將公司證號及稅務證號及統計證號等統一成一個審核,這樣的措施在中國的公司登記期間至少減少30個工作天。還有就是印度GST,中央稅證號與州稅證號合一,讓進項稅額能夠跨州間交易可以抵減。

The most obvious reform of the Unified Certificate is China, which is the combination of the Three Certificates and the Five Certificates. The provincial (municipal) level will unify the company card number and the tax certificate number and the statistical certificate number into a single audit, such a measure will be reduced by at least 30 working days during the period of company registration in China. Then there’s the Indian GST, which combines the central tax number with the state tax card number, allowing the input tax to be deducted from interstate transactions.

  • 派駐人員工作證, 簽證與居留

Posting of Staff Permits, Visas and Residency

WPR-WW-10
工作證,簽證,居留證 申請條件與程序
ü  該國工作證、簽證、居留證申請條件與薪資有關係嗎?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  該國工作證、簽證、居留證申請條件與資本額有關係嗎?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  該國工作證、簽證、居留證申請條件與營業額有關係嗎?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  派駐人員的工作證申請的條件和程序為何?
ü  派駐人員的簽證申請的條件和程序為何?
ü  派駐人員的居留證等申請的條件和程序為何?
WPR-WW-20
工作證,簽證,居留證文件認證規定;
ü  需認證投資國相關文件為何?
ü  如需認證,該國對投資國文件只要由專業人士實名認證?還是要經過雙方政府公證&認證手續? 此項規定之目的為何?
ü  如需政府經過雙方政府公證&認證手續,步驟: (1)投資國證件公證;(2)投資國政府單位認證;(3)被投資國駐外單位認證
ü  投資國相關文件公證單位(法院公證處or 民間公證人)為何?
ü  投資相關文件投資國認證單位(外交部)名稱為何?
ü  投資相關文件認證單位(被投資國派駐在投資國駐外單位)為何?
WPR-WW-30
派駐人員待遇相關議題:
ü  派駐人員的住房補貼要計入個人所得課稅稅基與員工社會福利稅稅基?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  派駐人員的在被投資國需強制參與當地的社會福利嗎?此項規定之目的為何?
ü  管理考量–派駐人員的必需保留在投資國個人所得稅與社會福利?
ü  管理考量–派駐人員的定期回國休假?
WPR-WW-40
派駐人員眷屬及其子女教育問題
ü  該國允許眷屬隨行嗎? 此項規定之目的為何?
ü  眷屬可以工作嗎? 此項規定之目的為何?
ü  子女受教育有公民待遇嗎? 此項規定之目的為何?
ü  管理考量–補貼教育費用嗎?

WPR-WW-10

Work permit, visa, residence permit application conditions and procedure

*Are the conditions for applying for a work permit, visa and residence permit related to salary in the country? What is the purpose of this provision?

*Is the country’s work permit, visa, residence permit application condition related to the amount of capital? What is the purpose of this provision?

*Does the country’s work permit, visa, residence permit application conditions relate to turnover? What is the purpose of this provision?

*What are the conditions and procedures for applying for a work permit for a personnel presence?

*What are the conditions and procedures for the application for a visa for the presence of a person?

*What are the conditions and procedures for applications such as residence permits for accredited personnel?

WPR-WW-20

Rules on the Certification of Work Permit, Visa and Residence Permit Documents;

*What are the documents required to certify the home country?

*If certification is required, are the country’s investment country documents certified only by a professional person’s real name? Still want to pass both government notarization& attestation procedure? What is the purpose of this provision?

*If the Government is required to go through the notarization-authentication procedures of the two Governments, step: (1) Notarization of the documents of the country of investment; (ii) Certification of government entities in the home country; (3) Certification of Units Stationed Abroad in the Investee Country

*What is the relevant document notary unit in the country of investment (court notary public or notary public)?

*What is the name of the certification authority (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) in the country of investment related documentation?

*What are the investment-related documentation certification units (units of the investee country stationed abroad)?

WPR-WW-30

Issues related to the treatment of accredited personnel:

*Housing subsidies for personnel are included in the personal income tax base and the employee’s social welfare tax base? What is the purpose of this provision?

*Is there a need for compulsory participation in local social benefits in the host country? What is the purpose of this provision?

*Management considerations – the need to maintain a presence in the home country for personal income tax and social benefits?

*Management considerations — periodic repatriation leave for deployed personnel?

WPR-WW-40

Education of Dependants and Their Children of Assigned Personnel

*Is family allowed in the country? What is the purpose of this provision?

*Are dependents allowed to work? What is the purpose of this provision?

*Are children being educated treated as citizens? What is the purpose of this provision?

*Management considerations – subsidizing education costs?

WPR-WW-10各國工作證、簽證、居留證申請是否核准,與派駐人薪資、資本額、營業額有很大關係。

WPR-WW-10 National Work Permits, Visas, and Residence Permits are approved, which has much to do with the salary, capital and turnover of the Applicant.

WPR-WW-10:派駐人員有辦理當地國工作證,工作VISA簽證,及當地居民證辦理的問題;此外安排派駐人員定期回國休假並回來與母公司人員交流;

WPR-WW-10: The staff member has a local work permit, a work VISA VISA VISA VISA, and a local resident’s certificate to handle the issue; In addition, arrange for regular repatriation leave and exchange with parent company personnel;

WPR-WW-10:在印度辦理工作證的外國人年薪必須是25,000美金以上,並需要依此被公司扣繳個人所得稅

WPR-WW-10: Foreigners with a work permit in India must have an annual salary of more than $25,000, on the basis of which they must be withheld from the company for personal income tax

WPR-WW-10:在台灣每個外國子公司可以派駐一人,沒有最低薪資限制,也沒有學經歷限制,其家屬可以隨同,第二年起有達到一定的年營業額才能繼續派任。在台灣如非投資派任,要聘請員工,必須是專業人員,大學畢業加2年國外派駐經驗,而且每月最低薪資約為USD 1,700,個人所得稅扣繳稅率18%。

WPR-WW-10: Each foreign subsidiary in Taiwan can be accredited to one person, With no minimum wage limit and no academic experience limit, his or her family can accompany him or her, and from the following year, he or she can only continue to be assigned if he or she reaches a certain annual turnover. In Taiwan, if you don’t invest, hire staff, Must be a Professional, University graduate plus 2 years experience in a foreign country and minimum monthly salary of approximately USD 1700, Personal Income Tax Withholding 18%.

WPR-WW-30:此外尚有住房補貼;以及當地社會保險、醫療保險及個人所得稅,繳交款由公司補貼的議題。

WPR-WW-30: in addition to housing subsidies; And local social insurance, medical insurance, and personal income tax, the topic of payment of company subsidies.

WPR-WW-30:通常派駐人員在母公司必須維繫住其社會保險,健康保險,退休金等福利不能中斷,因此必須繼續領薪水。在海外子公司尚必須符合在地法規,也必須領薪水,繳交個人所得稅,因此常有所謂領雙薪的說法。

WPR-WW-30: Normally accredited personnel in the parent company must maintain their social security, health insurance, retirement benefits, etc., without interruption, and must therefore continue to be paid. Overseas subsidiaries must still comply with local laws and regulations and must also be paid personal income tax, so there is often a claim of double pay.

WPR-WW-30:歐洲許多國家,例如德國、法國、西班牙要聘用外國人必須證明在該國的國民不適任;因此,需公告一段期間;沒有人來應徵,才能聘用。

WPR-WW-30: Many countries in Europe, such as Germany, France and Spain, must demonstrate that their nationals are not eligible for employment in the country; A period of notice is therefore required; You can’t hire anyone until you apply.

CBM-WW-00:專案型工程承包案,必須要盡量優先僱用並訓練當地人,不止是白領工程師,尤其是藍領工人,更需如此。因此訓練體制相當重要,長期深耕並對子公司所在地的經濟開發及人員提升是決定海外子公司是否能夠成功的關鍵因素。

CBM-WW-00: Project-based project contracts must give priority to the hiring and training of local people, not only white-collar engineers, but especially blue-collar workers as much as possible. So training system is very important, long-term thorough development and the economic development and promotion of personnel in the location of subsidiaries are the key factors that determine whether the overseas subsidiaries can succeed or not.

CBM-WW-00:跨國企業海外子公司設立後,長期、最終目標應該是甄選訓練錄用在地人才,增強集團的實力,也就是將力量延伸到海外。這通常也是被投資國的期望增加就業訓練當地人才,許多跨國子公司營運多年後也只有總經理及其他1-2人由母公司派任而已,都是就地取才。但是短期內仍然需要依從母公司的標準作業程序(SOP)運作。

CBM-WW-00: After the Establishment of Overseas Subsidiaries of Multinational Enterprises, In the long run, the ultimate goal should be to select and recruit local talents and to strengthen the Group, that is, to extend its power overseas. This is also usually the expectation of the home country to increase employment and train local talent, after many years of operation, many multinational subsidiaries are only assigned by the parent company to the general manager and other 1-2 people, who are only available on the spot. But it still needs to operate under the parent company’s standard operating procedures (SOP) in the short term.